We have already seen that clusters are made and formed in great stellar hatcheries within nebulae, whose stars are produce over some short and defined timeframe. Any Colour-Magnitude Diagram (CMD) is really only a small ‘snap-shot’ of the cluster at its certain specified age. We find this from the overall stellar characteristics within each cluster CMD, very useful clues of the cluster ages and the general stellar states of overall evolution of stars it contains. In this regard, looking at various open cluster CMD’s shows that open clusters vary significantly. It therefore becomes easy to distinguishing between, say, some brand-new cluster and another aged one.
Visually, the first notable thing on the CMD is the line of stars forming an S-shaped or sting-shaped curve. All the brightest and bluest stars are placed at the top-left moving across the curve to the bottom right corner. This principal line contains mainly similar solar-mass stars and is called the Main Sequence. (White Circle ‘2’ in Figure 1.)
Each component that appears on this line are non-evolved stars that are consuming their hydrogen fuel at a steady rate and are in both gravitational and thermal equilibrium. Any star on this line will spend about 80% of its lifetime more or less near the same place on the CMD. After some period of time eventually the star will have consumed significant portions of its hydrogen which soon affects the stellar structure.
On approaching of this looming energy crisis the internal parts of the star begin to react and some reorganisation of the stellar material must take place. Simply the core of the star is slowly crushed inwards by gravity and becomes no longer capable of producing the energy required to keep this force in balance. Consequently the core shrinks and the core temperature rises. Soon the lower density of the outer regions of the star respond by expanding. Here the star begins to swell, evolving into a red giant star. An observer sees this effect as an increase in luminosity compared to its earlier life, but stellar surface area has inflated so much, the surface temperature decreases. Such stars appear as cooler bodies than their former selves, whose colours becoming less blue and more red — seen as an increase in the measured B-V.
Again as seen on the CMD, as the cluster ages, more and more stars will begin to drift away from the main sequence towards the right-hand side. We find that because the heaviest stars evolve first, these are the first to leave the long populated line of the main sequence. As these stars tend to be both hotter and more luminous, they appear in the top left-hand corner. These massive stars are first to ‘peeled-off’ the main sequence, then are followed in order by the lesser and leaser massed stars as the cluster slowly ages. The place on the CMD where the stars move off the main sequence is called the turn-off point.
By examining any CMD, an estimation of the range of stellar masses can be made. This is achieved by predicting the place of the turn-off point and finding the mass of the stars that lie near there. Using stellar evolution theory, stellar age can be determined which, subsequently implies the total age of the whole cluster. Furthermore, as the cluster gets older the B−V value of the turn-off point slowly decreases over time.
For young clusters like the Pleiades, none of the stars having evolved away from the main sequence. Here we see that the B−V of the cluster’s turn-off point is around -0.25. Older clusters like the ancient clusters in Cancer (M44 and M67) and Centaurus (NGC and NGC ) have almost entirely moved away from the main sequence. Here the majority of stars appear in the centre of the CDM. In these examples, the values of B−V at the cluster’s turn-off point is anywhere between 0.2 and 0.4.
The Table below shows roughly the expected B−V at the turning-off point for the corresponding age. It should be noted that some variations in colour are caused by the range of masses of the cluster stars, the chemical composition, etc.)
Figure 2. Modified Sandage Composite Colour Magnitude Diagram
This is the Composite CMD of eleven (11)
galactic clusters and one globular cluster. The age of each
open cluster in question is given by the main sequence
termination point, which appears on the right side of the
Looking at the respective CMD’s, derived simply by counting all stars that have deviated away from the main sequence, you can easily tell which is the oldest of the stellar groups. Age of each cluster is given as 5.6 million years (Myr.) and 3.2 Myr., respectively, while the association is in the order of 7.9 million years.
As for other bright clusters, we have determined their ages with reasonable precision. This has meant we can provide suitable comparisons and have some understand of the general characteristics of the main sequence stars.
Often stars in younger open star clusters are higher in both luminosity and surface temperature. It is from this region that the stars appear at the top left-hand corner of the CMD and then deviate by the curves at the very top end of the turn-off point. Established older clusters like M67 and NGC 752 have most of the stars away from the main sequence. This gap between the open clusters on each side of the CMD (and in the more advanced Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD)) is called the Hertzsprung Gap. It is produced by stars quickly evolving directly across the CMD into the red-giant stage. Chances of seeing any stars lying within in the Hetrzsprung gap is likely improbable.
The following table shows open star clusters that are listed in increasing ages which has been adopted from WEBDA and Lyngå, G. “Lund Catalogue of Open Cluster Data”, 5th Edition (1987). [The previous version of this table data used Gretchen Hagen’s “An Atlas of Open Star Clusters Colour-Magnitude Diagrams” (1970), which is now significantly outdated.]
|1.||NGC 2362 / τ CMa||CMa||1389||I 3 p -||8.2|
|2.||NGC 2467||Pup||1355||I 3 m n:b||12.7|
|3.||NGC 4755 / Jewel Box||Cru||1976||I 3 r -||16.3|
|4.||Mel 20 / α Per||Per||185||III 3 m -||71|
|5.||NGC 6087||Nor||891||I 2 p -||94|
|6.||M45 / Pleiades||Tau||150||I 3 r -||135|
|7.||M11 / NGC 6705||Sct||1877||I 2 r -||200||7.||M67/ NGC 2682||Cnc||908||I 3 r -||2560|
|9.||NGC 6791||Lyr||4100||II 3 r -||4315|
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