SOUTHERN ASTRONOMERS and
THE SYDNEY OBSERVATORY :
HISTORY AND PROGRESS
By HENRY CHAMBERLAIN RUSSELL
[COMMENT: The images with this article have
yet to be scanned and reduced to small enough sizes. These should be
available soon. AJ. (2012)]
We are told by Col. Collins in his history of New South Wales
“Among the buildings
that were undertaken shortly after our arrival must be mentioned an
Observatory, which was marked out on the western point of the cove,
to which the astronomical instruments were sent, which had been sent
out by the Board of Longitude for the purpose of observing the comet
which was expected to be seen about the end of this year. The
construction of this building was placed-under the direction of
Lieut. Dawes, of the Marines, who, having made this branch of science
his peculiar study; was appointed by the Board of Longitude to make
astronomical observations in this
It is subsequently recorded that ;
Observatory was erected as soon as the colonists landed, but being
afterwards found small and inconvenient, as well for the purpose of
observing as for the residence of Lieut. Dawes and the reception of
the astronomical instruments, a new one was built of stone, the
materials for which were found in abundance upon the
The comet for which all these preparations were made was that
which had been observed in 1532 and 1661, and which was generally
expected to return about the end of 1788 or the beginning of 1789. It
was one of the twenty-four which Dr. Halley had used in his
celebrated investigation, in which he proved that comets were subject
to the then new law of gravitation and like all other astronomical
bodies revolved about some centre. In 1786 Maskelyne pointed out that
this comet would be affected by the major planets, and that for the
investigation of this important matter it was very desirable that it
should be observed in the Southern Hemisphere, where it would first
be visible ; hence the establishment of the
Dawes’ Point Observatory, the first on
Australian soil, and strange to say standing on the same present
Sydney Observatory. We are not told what was done at the
Dawes’ Point Observatory, but no doubt
a great deal of useful work in determining position and other things
committed to Lieut. Dawes’ care ; for
we know that he was a most energetic officer, as was particularly
evidenced by his early attempts to find a road over the Blue
Mountains, the great barrier to the progress of the Colony; and
though he failed in this, like so many others, it was not until he
had made many journeys about these almost inaccessible mountains that
he gave up the enterprise.
From this time onward we hear nothing of the Observatory at
Dawes’ Point; but in 1821 Sir Thomas
Brisbane was made Governor of the Colony; always an ardent student of
astronomy, he had made himself familiar with the practice as well as
with the theory, and saw in his new appointment the opportunity of
indulging his love for the science; he was going to a climate already
famed for its clear skies and almost a new field for the astronomer;
La Caille had worked at the Cape it is true, but with such inferior
instruments that it was obvious much must have been overlooked: under
these circumstances Sir Thomas at his own cost provided a very
complete set of instruments, consisting of a Transit Instrument,
3¾ inches aperture and 64 inches focal length, a 2-feet mural
circle by Troughton, a 16-inch repeating circle by Reichenbach, and
an Equatorial of 3¼ inches aperture and 42 inches focal
length, mounted on Smeaton’s block;
besides a valuable astronomical library, and two first-class
astronomical clocks, one of which had been made originally at great
cost for the French Commission of Longitude, also magnetic
instruments and other necessary apparatus. He then secured the
services of Mr. Carl S. Rümker, afterwards director of the
Observatory at Hamburg, and Mr. James Dunlop as assistant and
Immediately upon the arrival of Sir Thomas Brisbane, in November,
1821, a site was selected for the Observatory in the rear of
Government House, Parramatta, close to the present railway line where
it cuts through the public park; the building was begun at once and
finished ready for use by the end of April, 1822. It was a square
building with a flat roof and measured 28 feet on each side; the east
and west walls, as well as portions of the north and south sides were
straight, making a rectangular building; but on the north and south
sides the walls. Were in the middle built into a curve, in order to
support parts of the two domes, each 11ft. 6in. in diameter, which
were placed above the flat roof of the building; these projections in
the walls gave the building a remarkable appearance, which was not
lessened by the fact that each contained three small windows, the
only lights in it. Carefully made foundations, which still remain,
were prepared for the Transit and other instruments, and astronomical
work was begun on May 2nd, 1822. It is well known that the
Observatory was placed in the immediate vicinity of Government House,
in order that the Governor might devote every spare moment to his
favourite study. He took an active part in the work; the most
important part of which was the formation of the Parramatta
catalogue, numbering 7,383 stars; for this every star had to be
observed at least twice, once with the transit and once with the
mural circle, and many were observed oftener. Besides this, special
observations of the solstice of 1822 and again of 1823 were made,
together with many occasional observations of comets, etc. So much
was done in the space of a few years that the Royal Astronomical
Society decided to present its gold medal to Sir Thomas Brisbane and
Mr. Dunlop as a mark of their high appreciation of their labours. Sir
John Herschel in presenting the medal eulogized the
“care and skill with which the
observations had been made,” and said
“that they formed one of the most
interesting and important series which has ever been made, and must
ever be regarded as marking a decided era in the history of modern
astronomy.”, Mr. Rümker finally
resigned and left the Colony in 1829, and Mr. Dunlop was appointed in
his place, which he continued to hold until 1842. When Sir Thomas
Brisbane left the Colony in 1827, the Government purchased all his
interest in the Observatory, which was thenceforth carried on at the
expense of the Government.
In the early part of his career Mr. Dunlop was a most energetic,
observer of double stars and nebulae and clusters of stars; of these
he recorded 600, besides a large and valuable list of double stars.
In 1842 he resigned, and, no fresh appointment being made, the
Observatory went rapidly to decay and in 1847 it was decided to
dismantle it and remove the instruments to Sydney, which was done,
and they were placed in the care of Mr. Dawson,
Before leaving the Parramatta Observatory it should be mentioned
that a careful drawing of it, to scale, was made by the late
Reverend W. B. Clarke, who always took a lively interest in the
scientific work that was done there; this shows the plan and
elevation as well as the positions of all the instruments. In 1870
Mr. Tebbutt suggested that an obelisk should be erected to mark the
site of the Observatory, but no action was taken in the matter until
1875, when J. S. Farnell, Esq., M.L.A., who had been long impressed
with the importance of permanently marking every point connected with
astronomical science or the Trigonometrical Survey of the Colony,
seeing that the walls of the old Observatory, which was in his
electorate, were fast disappearing induced the Government to place a
sum of £150 on the Estimates for the purpose of erecting a
suitable monument to mark the site of the Parramatta Observatory.
The following gentlemen were appointed trustees of the work
“Mr. James Squire Farnell, M.L.A., Mr.
James Barnett, Colonial Architect, Mr. H. C. Russell, Government
Astronomer.“ In execution of their
trust, they have had erected a veined white marble obelisk, exactly
in the position occupied by the transit instrument in former years.
On the east side of the obelisk an outline diagram of the transit
instrument has been engraved, and the following inscription:−
“An Astronomical Observatory was
founded here May 2, 1822, by Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, K.C.B.,
F.R.S., Governor of New South Wales. This obelisk was erected in 1880
to mark the site of the transit instrument in that
During the later years of Mr.
Dunlop’s career, work at the
Observatory had not been carried on with energy ; and in 1840, the
Government of the Colony decided to establish complete meteorological
observatories at the three important points in their widely scattered
domains ; for at that time New South Wales included what is now
Victoria, and also what was more recently made into the Colony of
Queensland. The three points were Sydney, at South Head ; Port
Macquarie, an important settlement and Port Phillip, now within the
Colony of Victoria, and then a recent and prosperous settlement. At
Ports Macquarie and Phillip, the observations were carried on for six
years, and at Sydney for fifteen until 1855, at which date the
observer left the Colony. Sir William Denison arrived in the Colony,
January 20th, 1855; and there seems to be no reason to doubt that his
energy in astronomical and meteorological observations induced the
observer at South Head, who had been for years working in a groove,
and was disinclined for change, to resign and leave the Colony. In
March, 1855, His Excelleney addressed a memorandum to the Executive
Council suggesting the appointment of an astronomer wholly supported
by the Colonial Government. The Council concurred in the proposal
made by His Excellency, and the matter was at once submitted to the
Legislature, and a sum of £7,000 was voted to provide buildings
and instruments. The Rev. W. Scott, M.A., of Sidney Sussex College,
Cambridge, was selected by the Astronomer Royal to fill the office of
Astronomer for New South Wales. Mr. Scott arrived in Sydney, November
1st, 1856, and at once selected a site for the Observatory.
It was required that the time-ball should be visible from the
harbour generally, and that the Observatory should be within easy
reach of the other Government departments ; practically these
conditions decided the question of site, as the only suitable piece
of Government land was on Flagstaff Hill. For purely scientific
reasons it would doubtless have been better to place it outside the
city bounds to avoid the dust, smoke, and vibration; but these
considerations were made subservient to the practical purposes for
which the Observatory was established. The building was commenced in
1857, and finished in June, 1858 ; it is a handsome stone structure;
the eastern front comprises the
Astronomer’s residence. On the south or
principal face there is a stone tower 58 feet high, upon the top of
which is the time-ball, 5 feet in diameter, and having a drop of 10
feet. Here also are placed the self-registering anemometer and
pluviometer. Adjoining the tower on the east side is the
meteorological computing room, and on the west side the Transit
Circle room, 24 feet by 16 feet, with two transit openings ; and next
to this the Equatorial tower, which has three floors, and was then
covered by a dome 18 feet in diameter.
In June, 1858, meridian observations were begun with the old
transit instrument, one of the relics of Parramatta Observatory, then
the only available instrument; for transit circle by Jones, which had
been sent out new, and set up at Parramatta but never used, had been
sent to England to be remodelled, and made ready for work.
During the building of the Observatory, Mr. Scott took the
opportunity to establish twelve meteorological observatories in the
principal centres of population; two of these at Brisbane and
Rockhampton were subsequently transferred to the Queensland
Government; the others were maintained until Mr.
Smalley’s arrival in 1864 ; each
station had a standard barometer, wet and dry bulbs, max., rain., and
solar radiation, and rain-gauge.
Owing to the imperfections of the astronomical instruments at his
command, Mr. Scott was at first obliged to confine his observations
to time determinations; no provision for new instruments had been
made, and the only instrument worth the name was the transit circle
then on its way from England; the small equatorial used at Parramatta
was still in existence, but its mounting was so worn and dilapidated
that it was useless. It was a fortunate circumstance that just then,
October, 1858, the great comet of Donati, one of the finest of this
century, appeared in our southern sky, and it was found that,
although the Colony had an astronomer, he had nothing but a common
sextant to observe the comet; under these circumstances, the
Parliament, with that liberality which has always marked its
provision for science, voted for the sum of £800 for a new
equatorial; and this was at once sent home to the Astronomer Royal,
with a request that he would purchase a suitable instrument. He was
fortunate in finding a new 7¼-in. refractor of 10ft. 4in.
focal length in the manufactory of Merz and Son, Munich, and this was
purchased and sent to the Colony, where it arrived in May, 1861, in
fact just at the time when Mr. Tebbutt announced the discovery of the
great comet of 1861, which rightly bears his name. The new telescope
was set up with all possible despatch, and the comet was first
observed with it on June 9th. Some repairs to the old Parramatta
equatorial had been effected, and observations of the comet, prior to
June 9th, made with it. In October, 1858, the transit circle had
arrived and was mounted at once. Its graduated limb is 42 in. in
diameter, telescope 3¾ in., with a focal length of 62 inches.
This, with the new equatorial mentioned above, furnished the
Observatory with all the astronomical instruments it was to get for
many years; and Mr. Scott at once set to work to make the best use of
the instruments in his possession by meridian observations of stars
near the zenith of Sydney and moon culminations for the determination
of longitudes and observations of such comets as were visible from
time to time; but, as he had only one assistant, the meridian
observations and meteorological work engaged all his attention. It
soon became manifest that the meridian circle, though good of its
kind, was faulty in several particulars, especially when applied to
determinations of the right ascensions of stars; and that it was not
equal to the meridian circle used at the Cape of Good Hope in doing
the same work; and it became a question with Mr. Scott, whether he
should continue the meridian observations or take up the observation
of double stars. The volume of results for 1859 contains 884 meridian
observations of stars, with many moon culminations, the determination
of the position of the Observatory, &c. ; that for 1860, 2,507 ;
and for 1861, 2,100 ; in these volumes all his comet work was also
published. The work for 1861 was less than for 1860, because some
time had been devoted to double star work for the reason just stated.
It will be seen from the number of observations that, with but one
assistant for both astronomical and meteorological work, Mr. Scott
must have worked with very great energy, in order to get through so
much. During part of the time also he devoted some time to a class of
students, who came to the Observatory ostensibly to learn astronomy ;
but the attempt was not a success ; it was found that the gratuitous
teaching in mathematics was accepted; but, so soon as astronomical
teaching began, the class ceased to exist. These four years of hard
work had told seriously upon Mr.
Scott’s health, and early in 1862 he
sent in his resignation.
Upon his resignation a request was sent home to Sir George Airy,
Astronomer Royal, to secure the services of an astronomer for New
South Wales. Meantime Mr. Russell, who had joined the Observatory in
1859 as Mr. Scott’s assistant, was made
Acting Astronomer.He, having no assistant, continued the meridian
observations for time and longitude only, and carried on the
meteorological observations and reductions. During the opposition of
Mars in 1862 he made a long and valuable series of micrometer
measures of that planet with stars on his path, but there was not
time to publish them before
Mr.Smalley’s arrival, and they were not
published afterwards. At the end of 1863 the Acting Astronomer
designed and set up at the Observatory the first self-recording
anemometer in the Colonies. Special attention was also given to the
computation, of such observations as Mr. Scott had left unpublished;
so that all this work and all the meteorological observations might
be cleared up when the new astronomer arrived, and all were ready to
go to press by the end of 1863.
On the 7th January, 1864, Mr. George Roberts Smalley, B.A., who
had been selected by the Astronomer Royal to take Mr.
Scott’s place, arrived in the Colony.
Mr. Smalley had been for a time engaged as Magnetical Observer at the
Cape of Good Hope, and had spent some time at Greenwich before
leaving England After an examination of the meridian circle and after
hearing Mr. Scott’s report upon it, Mr.
Smalley determined not to devote his time to meridian carried on with
an imperfect instrument, the more so as it came evident that the
blasting and quarrying operations 100 yards of the Observatory caused
constant movement in the foundations. The only meridian observations
made by him therefore were such as were required for time
determinations, and with the Equatorial the only observations were
those of Encke’s comet published in the
R.A.S. notices. He devoted considerable time and attention to
magnetical observations, and made several journeys into the country
for the purpose of determining magnetic variations at different
At this time an additional room was built for the Astronomer, and
a cellar constructed for magnetical observations, and also a detached
wooden house on the north side of the Observatory, and in the
meridian of the transit instrument.
The meteorological work of the Observatory was improved and
extended, and a suitable shed or house made for the thermometers. In
1867 he began the publication of the Sydney observations monthly, in
pamphlet form, a very great improvement upon that in use before, but
the number of country stations was reduced, and for a time their
observations were not published. Mr. Smalley finding the
unsatisfactory nature of the meridian instrument used all his
influence to induce the Government to commence a trigonometrical
survey of the Colony, which was urgently required. At length he
succeeded, and the work was entrusted to him, and reports were sent
in from the surveyors in various parts of the Colony showing the best
sites for a base line in each district. That at the south end of Lake
George was finally selected, cleared, roughly measured and levelled.
Before, however, it could be accurately measured the waters of the
lake rose and covered great part of it. This involved selecting
another line near it, but above the water. In doing this there was
necessarily more delay in clearing and preliminary work, and when it
was just ready to measure another rise in the lake water covered it
and again delayed the work. The worry and annoyance of these delays,
and the trouble of carrying out such works so far from the city had
told seriously upon Mr. Smalley’s
health, and during the latter part of 1869 and all 1870 till his
death in July of that year, he was not able to do much to the work
which he had determined to carry out. During the time he was engaged
in the base line operations the work of the Observatory, both
astronomical and meteorological, had been left almost entirely to Mr.
Russell, and the astronomical part of it was necessarily confined to
meridian observations for time.
Upon Mr. Smalley’s death, Mr. Henry
Chamberlain Russell, B.A., who had been in the Observatory since
January, 1859, was appointed Astronomer.
Having had a share in all the work done with the Meridian Circle
and knowing its imperfections, he determined to confine the
observations made with it to those required for time and longitude,
and at once urged the necessity for a new Meridian Instrument, a
necessity which was kept constantly before the Board of Visitors.
Meantime observation of double stars was taken up vigorously with the
large Equatorial, the working list being
Herschel’s Cape Catalogue.
He next re-established the Meteorological Stations which Mr.
Smalley had discontinued, and then commenced systematically to
increase the number of Meteorological Stations, and to invite
amateurs to join in the work of recording rain and temperature.
In December, 1871, an important Solar Eclipse took place, and the
moon’s shadow crossed, the Gulf of
Carpentaria. Professor Wilson, of the Melbourne University, proposed
that a colonial expedition should proceed to Cape Sidmouth to observe
it. Mr. Russell entered heartily into the scheme and by the
representations he made the Government of Queensland were induced to
lend their then new steamer, “Governor
Blackall”, free of all expense, except
that for insurance, for the purpose of carrying the observers to Cape
Sidmouth. Mr. Russell organised a strong party of observers to
represent New South Wales, and everything was ready for the eclipse,
when on the important day a thunderstorm obscured the sun until it
Prior to Mr. Smalley’s death active
preparations were going on in Europe for the then approaching transit
of Venus, but he had determined not to take part in it, and made no
preparations. When therefore in the latter part of 1870 Mr. Russell
took office with a strong desire to engage in this work, everything
had to be done. The question had to be brought before the Government
and then before Parliament before any steps could be taken to secure
the necessary instruments. Parliament liberally granted £1,000
for this purpose, greater part of which was expended upon the
splendid. 11½-inch refractor which the Observatory now
possesses, and upon the photoheliograph made after the same pattern
as those used by the English observers. Besides these a number of
minor instruments were secured, making in all twelve instruments.
These were divided amongst four parties, located at Sydney, Woodford,
Goulburn, and Eden; each party in addition to the telescopes for
observing the ingress and egress of the planet was provided with the
means of taking rapid photographs of the sun during the Transit. Of
the observers only three came from the Observatory staff and the
other nine were volunteers who required more or less training for the
work. For this purpose regular practice upon an artificial transit
and in the photographic work was kept up for some months, until all
felt prepared for the work assigned to them.
The weather proved all that could be wished, and extremely
satisfactory observations of ingress and egress were secured as well
as some 1,300 photographs of Venus in transit. These observations and
photographs were a valuable contribution to the data in the
Astronomer Royal’s report on the Solar
The labour of preparation for this work had been compressed as
stated before into a very short time and had involved great changes.
The old dome had to be taken down and a new one of metal 22 feet in
diameter put up, and all the necessary alterations made for the new
equatorial chronographs had to be made telescopes fitted up for the
special work and many minor pieces of apparatus, prepared in the
Colony under Mr. Russell’s personal
supervision. This, together with the training of the observers and
the general case of the undertaking proved a severe strain upon him,
and he was therefore given eight
months’ leave of absence in order to
take the results of the observations in England. At the insistence of
the Surveyor-General a sum of money £1,000, was placed in Mr.
Russell’s hands for the purchase of a
new transit instrument; and after visiting all the makers in Europe
and examining their work he finally gave the order to Messrs.
Troughton and Simms, London, who produced a splendid instrument with
every modern improvement, objective 6½ inches, focal length 6
feet 8 inches, two circles of 24 inches, each read by four
microscopes; special precautions were taken to prevent flexure and
unsteadiness. In this instrument the piers are made of hollow cast
iron and there is no provision for adjustment in level or azimuth,
which is great improvement. The circles are so arranged that one can
be used to test the other, and the magnifying power of the
microscopes is 60 diameters. The axis is a very massive casting in
gun metal strengthened by internal braces, and : having steel pivots
resting on segmental Y’s the
ends of the telescope are made as light as possible to avoid flexure.
One lamp placed at a distance illuminates the four microscopes and
the field of view, and at the eyepiece the illumination can be
changed from dark to bright wires at pleasure.
During the same trip opportunity was found to purchase a very
large spectroscope by Hilger, giving dispersion through eighteen
prisms and means and measuring one three-hundredth part of the space
between the D lines; and also a very large Rumkorff coil for the
spectroscopic work and many other pieces of apparatus. A large barrel
chronograph with the new compound pendulum governor has been made in
the Colony, a very perfect barograph, and also a meteorograph on
which barometer, thermometer, wind, and rain are recorded. In fact,
since 1870, the Observatory has been entirely refurnished with
instruments of the most modern and perfect forms, and although they
are not equal in size to some of the giant telescopes which have been
recently erected in Europe at enormous cost, they are quite equal in
quality to those in the best European Observatories, as is proved by
the observations now made with them.
When the Observatory was built one serious oversight in the design
was made. The tower for the equatorial was placed due west of the
Time Ball Tower; the effect of this was that a part of the eastern
horizon was hidden from the large telescope, and on several occasions
important observations of objects in the east had to be made with
inferior instruments. After the 11½-inch Equatorial was
erected an addition was made to the Observatory forming a west wing,
at the northern end of which a second dome was placed for the
7¼-inch refractor. This is in such a position that all parts
of the heavens hidden from the large refractor are visible with it.
Several additional rooms which were urgently needed were provided at
the same time, including one for spectroscopic and kindred
In 1877, the new Transit Circle was received and at once set to
work upon stars for the Trigonometrical Survey, and others near the
Zenith for catalogue. During the first year also it was used for
observing stars and the planet Mars in apposition, for the purpose of
determining the Solar Parallax. A long series of observations was
made, which, when combined with observations made at Washington, gave
8.885 as the value of the Solar Parallax.
The results in 1877 and 1878 with the observations of Mars have
been published ; those for ’79,
’81 are ready for the printer. All the
double star work up to 1881 have been printed ; it contains besides
measures of all the stars in Herschel’s
Cape Catalogue, south of the zenith of Sydney, a list of 350 new
double stars which have been discovered at Sydney.
The effort to increase the Meteorological Observatories, begun in
1870, has been highly successful ; at present there are fifty
stations connected with the Observatory, and 240 private observers
who regularly send returns; so that now records are obtained from 290
points in the Colony, while in 1870 there were only six. This
numerous band of observers scattered over the Colony furnish data
which form the history of all local droughts, floods, and other
meteorological phenomena of importance.
The meteorological work at the Observatory, as will be gathered
from the instruments mentioned, has been made much more complete.
Since 1878 the rain returns have been published in pamphlet form,
with a map showing localities, and a diagram showing the result of
daily observations of the principal rivers. This is an addition to
the annual volume which has also increased from eighty pages in 1870
to 200 pages of closely printed matter in 1881.
In February, 1877, Mr. Russell began the publication of a daily
weather map which combines the observations of South Australia,
Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland, giving in fact at one view
the weather of all the Australian Colonies. This took the place of a
tabular statement which had been previously printed in the
Herald. An outline of Australia showing the mountains and the
reporting stations was made up, partly in stereo and partly in type,
so ingeniously arranged that the whole could be prepared for printing
in less than two hours. Of these maps a sufficient number are printed
daily at the Observatory for the various Observatories to which they
are sent, and after that the Herald takes a copy and
reproduces it daily. The number of stations reporting weather and
also the area over which they extend has gradually increased, and now
there are fifty in New South Wales and twenty-seven from the other
Colonies, which include New Zealand and the Overland line in South
Australia, in addition to those already mentioned. The maps thus
produced are invaluable in studying the weather, and are sent to all
the principal Meteorological Observatories. For the past two years a
diagram showing the state of the barometers all round the coast has
been added. This shows clearly the progress of the usual storm
centres which travel along the south coast, and was instrumental in
showing their character and rate of progress.
In this very brief sketch of the Observatory, the works published,
as the outcome of what has been done, have not been included in the
text. It was thought better to arrange them in tabular form, which
will be more convenient for reference.
In concluding this part of our subject it may be mentioned the
formal attempt to teach astronomy in a class has not been repeated.
Mr. Russell thinks that the object in view can be better attained by
the publication of such astronomical information as will excite
interest in the subject, and by freely giving instruction and advice
to all who ask for it. The experiment has proved very satisfactorily
that the plan is a good one. There are now in many parts of the
Colony amateurs who have been assisted in this way, and who are
finding in the study of astronomy pleasure and instruction, and there
are some who go beyond this and do valuable work. The majority of the
instruments in use are of 3-inch aperture, but some are of 4-inch,
4½, 5, and even 6-inches aperture, the latter a high class
instrument, by Cooke, of York. Some have chosen reflectors and have
instruments of 8½-inches, and one 10½-inches. Some of
these are valuable instruments with which important work has been
done. It would be difficult to compare the percentage of amateur
observers here with that in other places, England for instance; but
it is probable that the percentage of amateur astronomers is quite as
great here as in the older countries of Europe.
Papers published by the Rev. W. Scott, M.A.
“On the Meteorology
of New South Wales”
Read — Wednesday, October 14, 1857. Sydney Magazine of Science
and Art. Vol. I, page 128.
“On the Plurality of
Read — August 11, 1858. Sydney Magazine of Science and Art.
Vol. II, page 118
Observations, Part 1857 and
Sydney Magazine of Science and Art. Vol. II, page 831.
Papers published by G. R. Smalley, Esq., B.A., &c.,
Read before the Royal Society of New South
“On the Mutual
Influence of Clock Pendulums.”
[Read − 4th December, 1867.] 5 pages.
“Opening Address to
the Royal Society, delivered at its first
Vice-President [Read − 3rd June, 1868] (11 pages.)
“On the Value of Earth
Vice-President. [Read − 1st July 1868.] (3 pages.)
No astronomical volumes were published by Mr. Smalley.
Papers published by H.C. Russell, Esq., B.A., F.R.A.S.
01. Remarks on Table for Calculating the Humidity of the Air. (8
pages and diagram.) Read - December 8th, 1869.
02. Meteorology in New South Wales. (36 pages, 2 diagrams.) Read
03. Remarks on the Nebula About Eta Argus. (10 pages and maps.) Read
− May 12th, 1871.
04. On the Magnetic Variations in New South Wales. (4 pages, 13
diagrams.) Read − July 12th, 1871.
05. Astronomical Notes. (2pages.) Read - September, 1872.
06. On the Coloured Cluster About Kappa Crucis. (12 pages, 1 map.)
Read − October 2nd,1872
07. A Self registering Tide Gauge and Electrical Barograph. (1 page.)
Read − January, 1873;
08. Local Particulars of the Transit of Venus. (19 pages, 3
diagrams.) Read − September 3rd, 1873.
09. How to Adjust an Equatorial. (2 pages.) Read − August,
10. Some of the Results of the Transit of Venus, 1874. (19 pages.)
Read − January 11th, 1875.
11. Scientific Notes. (16 pages.) Read − November 3rd,
12. Notes on some Remarkable Errors Shown by Thermometers. (8 pages,
1 diagram.) Read − June 7th, 1876.
13. Meteorological Periodicity. Read − October 11th, 1876. (20
pages, 3 diagrams.)
14. Climate of New South Wales. (25 pages, 5 diagrams.) 1876.
15. Anniversary Address, containing results of Spectroscopic Work.
(20 pages.) Read − May 2nd, 1877.
16. Notes on some recent Barometric Disturbances. (6 pages.) Read
− December 5th, 1878.
17. Storms on the Coast of New South Wales. (22 pages, 4 diagrams.)
Read − August 7th, 1878.
18. Results of an Astronomical Experiment. (9 pages, 2 diagrams.)
Read − November 6th, 1878.
19. Longitude, Sydney Observatory. (4 pages.) May 3rd, 1878.
19a. Clarke’s Companion to Sirius. (3
pages.) August 2nd, 1878.
19b. Triangle Micrometer (2 pages.) September 6th, 1878.
19c. Abstract of Results of Transit of Venus. (3 pages.) October 4th,
19d. Some Remarks on the mountings of large Objectives. (2 pages.)
November 1st, 1877.
19e. On a new form of Equatorial Mountings. (3 pages.) November 1st,
20. On a method of printing Star Maps. (2 pages.) Read − May
21. The Gem Cluster. (8 pages and map.) Read − June 4th,
22. On the conjunction of Mars and Saturn. (2 pages.) July 1st,
23. The River Darling- the water which should pass through it. (2
pages.) August 1st,1879.
24. The Wentworth Hurricane. (10 pages and map.) Read December 3rd,
25. Some new Double Stars and Southern Binaries. (7 pages, 2 maps.)
June 3rd, 1880.
26. On Sliding Scale for correcting Barometer Readings. (3 pages, 1
diagram.) September 1st, 1880.
27. Recent Changes on Jupiter. (12 pages, 2 diagrams.) Read −
December 1st, 1880.
28. On the Spectrum and Appearance of the recent Comet. 1881.
29. Results of Double Star Measures. (67 pages, 4 Diagrams.).
September 7th, 1881.
30. On the Transit of Mercury December, 1881
31. Results of Astronomical Observations or 1877 and 1878. (77 pages,
32. Meteorological Observations 1863, 1870-1877, 1878-81 (and Rain
H. C. RUSSELL
Sydney: Thomas Richards, Government Printer. — 1882.
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